An assigned risk solution?

The Corpus Christi Caller and its intrepid reporter Rick Spruill report as follows this morning (this is an edited version of the article):

A plan to effectively abolish the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association in favor of placing coastal homeowners in an assigned risk pool, managed by a third party and overseen by the Texas Department of Insurance, is working its way around the Capitol in Austin.


The plan to abolish the association was offered by the four public members of a joint legislative committee established in 2011 to study windstorm insurance issues. It favors requiring private insurers to again write wind and hailstorm policies in coastal counties and follows closely the recommendations made by key insurance experts, including Texas Insurance Commissioner Eleanor Kitzman.

While coastal windstorm insurance experts welcome any plan calling for stronger building codes, the assigned risk scenario may struggle to gain traction in the halls of the state Capitol, said one member of the Coastal Windstorm Task Force.


Task force member Greg Smith said attracting private industry back to the coast through assigned risk would lead to exponential increases in coastal windstorm policy rates in the coming decade.


Smith said while assigned risk has worked well for workman’s compensation and health insurance lines of business, it is a poor fit for residential policies in a catastrophe zone.


He said insurance executives have told him placing residential homes into an assigned risk pool would be “beyond destructive” to the Texas homeowner’s insurance market.


For large companies that write billions in homeowner’s business in Texas, being forced into an assigned scenario in proportion to the amount of business they write in the rest of the state could mean multiple billions in additional exposure.


That would, in turn, put pressure on those companies to keep enough cash on hand — a central requirement under Texas insurance law — to cover those claims.

Instead of dumping residential properties that private insurance companies will not insure into the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association pool, the plan would allow a property for which the homeowner or the homeowner’s agent cannot obtain a reasonable quote to be temporarily assigned to a private carrier, for 30 days.

During that time the policy would be placed in an online exchange in which all carriers operating in Texas can bid. If the policy is not picked up through the competitive bid process, the assigned carrier becomes the permanent underwriter.


The process would be managed by a third-party clearinghouse working under contract with the Texas Department of Insurance.


Rates would be allowed to adjust, most likely upward, over a three- to eight-year period to get more in line with the private market.


Carriers that post losses because of assigned polices would be eligible for reimbursements from the state.


I’ll be discussing this idea more fully in the days ahead, but this is a major development.

Corpus Christi Caller details TWIA solvency problems

There’s a worthwhile article in the Corpus Christi Caller written by Rick Spruill. It addresses both the serious funding problem faced by TWIA today and the solutions being developed by coastal legislators and some coastal interest groups.  The article relies extensively from some of the blog entries here at, including ones here and here.

I’ve sent an e-mail to Mr. Spruill on the article and want to post that email here.

I agree that this ( is an intelligent and important article.  Moreover, even though it contains some criticism of what I have said on, it is a balanced presentation.  Two comments, neither of which reflect negatively on Mr. Spruill’s article:

1)  I don’t think Todd Hunter’s comment that Chandler “wants TWIA policyholders to pay for everything ” is quite right.  I want TWIA policyholders to pay for a much larger proportion of the losses their insurer is likely to pay and for that coverage to either be real (i.e. backed up by viable financial structures) or for very clear warnings given by TWIA and TDI to policyholders about the probabilities and consequences of TWIA insolvency.  Although in concept I agree that TWIA policyholders should pay for TWIA risks — I understand that there will be a period of transition required. But the direction of the transition should be towards the assumption of responsibility, not towards shirking it.  I would not be averse, for example, to some sort of grants or subsidized credit being made available, for example, for hardening coastal properties (“mitigation”) and would much rather see money from people other than TWIA policyholders going to reduce the scope of the risk rather than used to bail them out after a fairly foreseeable disaster occurs. I agree that our Texas economy is all interconnected and that if the coast were to suffer a hurricane in which a substantial number of policyholders had large claims against an insolvent insurer, it would hardly be only the coast that suffered.

2) The article is correct  that my computations do not take account of the double dip that TWIA policyholders with automobiles (and non-wind policies) would incur. I don’t have the data that would permit quantification of this complication in part because the Zahn Coastal Taskforce plan is not explicit enough about what sort of insurance would be subject to surcharge. I wish I did have the data. If anyone (like TDI) does have relevant data and would share it, I’d be happy to revise my conclusions.  And I will add a caveat to the existing posts reflecting this matter.  I do not think, however, that inclusion of this complication will alter the fundamental conclusions of my analysis.

Best wishes to all for a happy, healthy and hopefully hurricane-free New Year.

Study shows Coastal Taskforce Plan requires more than 50% subsidization

The Coastal Taskforce Plan recently endorsed by several coastal politicians would require people other than TWIA policyholders massively to subsidize TWIA — perhaps paying more than 60% of expected losses from tropical cyclones. That is the result of a study I have conducted using hurricane modeling software. As shown in the pie chart below, the study shows that only about 38% of the payouts come from TWIA premiums. The rest comes 26% from Texas insurers, 21% from policyholders of all sorts in 13 coastal counties and Harris County, 8% from insureds located throughout Texas and 7% from the State of Texas itself. These figures are based on running a 10,000 year storm simulation based on data created by leading hurricane modeler AIR and obtained through a public records request.  The figures are also based on my best understanding of the way in which the Coastal Taskforce plan would operate, although certain aspects of the plan remain unclear and additional clarification would help.

Expected Distribution of Sources for TWIA Payouts Due to Losses from Tropical Cyclones

Expected Distribution of Sources for TWIA Payouts Due to Losses from Tropical Cyclones (Sharing)

Continue reading

Who pays for hurricane losses under the Coastal Windstorm Task Force plan?

The plan put forward by the Coastal Windstorm Task Force led by Charles Zahn  and now endorsed by at least two Texas coastal politicians will likely cause much of the money paid out by the Texas Windstorm Insurance Agency to come not from premiums paid by TWIA insureds but from subsidies forcibly exacted from insureds throughout Texas and Texas insurers. Indeed, premiums paid by TWIA insureds may end up amounting to less than half of the money used to pay losses suffered by TWIA policyholders from tropical cyclones.

The chart below is my best understanding as to how the funding structure works.

Coastal Task Force Responsibility Chart Assuming Sharing within Layers

Coastal Task Force Responsibility Chart Assuming Sharing within Layers

The horizontal axis on this graph shows responsibility for each size loss potentially suffered by TWIA  policyholders as the result of a tropical cyclone. The vertical axis on the graph shows the percentage of responsibility.  Thus, non-TWIA policyholders in the 13 coastal counties and Harris County, which is apparently lumped in, pay for significant portions of losses less than about $2.6 billion. Insureds throughout Texas pay via premium surcharges for all losses in excess of about $4.4 billion.  See the little blue rectangles? Those are the relatively small amounts that TWIA policyholders actually pay for tropical cyclone losses. The rest is paid for by people who are not necessarily TWIA insureds. They pay it regardless of whether they are — as will frequently be the case — significantly poorer than people owning homes on the coast and regardless of whether they own a home or not.

Continue reading